Imaging Response of Antiangiogenic and Immune-Oncology Drugs in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC): Current Status and Future Challenges



This report aims to review criteria which have been proposed for treatment evaluation in mRCC under anti-angiogenic and immune-oncologic therapies and discuss future challenges for imagers.

RECIST criteria seem to only partially reflect the clinical benefit derived from anti-angiogenic drugs in mRCC. New methods of analysis propose to better evaluate response to these drugs, including a new threshold for size criteria (–10%), attenuation (Choi and modified Choi criteria), functional imaging techniques (perfusion CT, ultrasound or MRI), and new PET radiotracers.

Imaging of progression is one of the main future challenges facing imagers. It is progression and not response that will trigger changes in therapy, therefore it is tumour progression that should be identified by imaging techniques to guide the oncologist on the most appropriate time to change therapy. Yet little is known on dynamics of tumour progression, and much data still needs to be accrued to understand it. Finally, as immunotherapies develop, flare or pseudo-progression phenomena are observed. Studies need to be performed to determine whether imaging can distinguish between patients undergoing pseudo-progression for which therapy should be continued, or true progression for which the treatment must be changed.


Authors: Fournier, Laure | Bellucci, Alexandre | Vano, Yann | Bouaboula, Mehdi | Thibault, Constance| Elaidi, Reza | Oudard, Stephane | Cuenod, Charles

Journal: Kidney Cancer, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 107-114, 2017

Keywords: TKI, renal cell carcinoma, imaging, immuno-oncology drug